Wednesday, December 29, 2010

Kennedy Center Honors

Last night, CBS aired the Kennedy Center Honors, and among the honorees were two Broadway greats: Bill T. Jones (who choreographed Spring Awakening and Fela) and Jerry Herman (composer of Hello Dolly, La Cage aux Folles, and other hits).

The awards ceremony was fun to watch, and also interesting, giving an in-depth look into each of the honorees lives and accomplishments. Each honoree was also treated to a star-studded performance featuring their work. I loved both Jerry Herman's and Bill T. Jones's. Jones's featured an amazing performance from the Bill T. Jones/Arnie Zane Dance Company. It was absolutely mesmerizing. Jones is able to express ideas and concepts through dance that you never thought would be possible. It's so interesting to watch his choreography - no words can describe the effect it leaves on you.

Jerry Herman's tribute was wonderful, too. It featured Matthew Morrison, who gave a great rendition of It's Today from Mame. He also showed off some amazing dancing, which surprised me, since I never knew what a good dancer he is! There was also a rendition of Hello, Dolly (changed around to be Hello, Jerry) performed by the original Dolly, Carol Channing. Many of his other great songs were worked in, and it all ended with a peppy version of The Best of Time from La Cage.

And even though he's not associated with theatre, I loved Paul McCartney's tribute. It began with an amusing introduction by Alec Baldwin, and continued with breath-taking renditions of some of the best songs that he's written, such as Hey Jude, Penny Lane, Let It Be, and The End, which was performed by Aerosmith legend, Stephen Tyler.

I'm glad to see these people who have done such great work in the theatre and the arts in general honored. Here's hoping next year's honorees and ceremony will be just as great!


Thursday, December 23, 2010

Spider-Man: The Safety Hazard

I'm sure by now everyone knows about the stunt-gone-wrong in Spider-Man: Turn Off The Dark that happened earlier this week. After all, the story of stunt man Christopher Tierney, who took a gigantic plunge leaving him with serious injuries after his flying equipment failed, was everywhere from theatre websites to Good Morning America, and even to video game website I was on. You certainly didn't have to be a theatre fanatic to learn of this unfortunate incident.

So what does this mean for the fate of this troubled musical? Personally, besides added safety precautions, I don't think much. If anything, I think this sudden spike of media coverage will make people want to see this show. It gives the show a bit more controversy to it and an added sense of danger.

But what do I think should happen? I really don't think this show should go on, and not because I think that it's not a good musical. I don't have any real opinion on the show itself, since I haven't seen it or even heard any of its music, but if a show is a danger to the actors in it, then it shouldn't be allowed to continue. I understand that accidents happen, but there have been other incidents too, namely Natalie Mendoza's concussion. And not to undermine a concussion, but Tierney's situation was much more serious. He could have broken his neck, done damage to his spine, or even have died. He was lucky to fall in a way that prevented anything too serious from happening.

Maybe millions of dollars have been put into this show, and I'm sure that the director, Julie Taymour, would hate to see such a huge, controversial musical like this flop, but the safety of actors needs to be the top priority in any show. Unless serious changes are made to ensure safety, I'm not sure if I can agree with this show continuing. We don't need the next line about this musical to read "Spider-Man Actor Dead."

Very off-topic PS: MERRY CHRISTMAS!

Thursday, December 16, 2010

Submissions Only

Ever wanted a show like Glee, but with more maturity, less high school drama, and without all the butchering of popular songs and show tunes? Then look no further; a new series on youtube has just the thing for you, and it goes by the name Submissions Only.

Submissions Only is a great new web series that theatre people will love. It follows the story of Tim, a casting director for such projects as Snuggie: The Musical and The Human Centipede Wears Prada, and his best friend Penny, who's an emerging actress in the New York theatre scene. Only two episodes are up so far, but a lot has happened. Tim and his recent ex-boyfriend Steve have had a bit of a mix-up (I won't give anything away, but it's classic!), and Penny's love interest from college, Eric, is in the city auditioning for the same show as her. All this happens as they try to deal with the stress of auditions and breaking into show business.

This series does an awesome job at catering to theatre fanatics. There's a lot of jokes that will make people who know what it's like to be involved with theatre chuckle. Although this may limit the audience for the series, I love it, since it's easy to relate to and understand where they're coming from. The characters are interesting, too. Even though there are only two episodes so far, I feel like I'm getting to know them well and that they're developing into real, true people.

If you haven't seen Submissions Only, check it out and subscribe to its channel on youtube! No theatre person should miss it!

Episode 1, part 1:

Saturday, December 11, 2010

And Now For Something Completely Different: Top 8 Favorite Bands and Non-Theatre Singers

I love theatre, that's for certain, and even though I may be extremely interested in it, it's not my only interest. So why not blog about something that isn't theatre-related every once in awhile? That's exactly what I'm doing today. I'm starting a new feature on my blog titled "And Now For Something Completely Different" (lovingly ripped off from Monty Python's Flying Circus). I'm contemplating doing one of these off-topic blogs once a month or so.

Today, I present you with my top 8 favorite bands and non-theatre singers. While 50% or more of the music I own is show tunes, I do enjoy other types of music too, so let's delve in!

#8 - Pink Floyd

Ah, Pink Floyd. Their music is so interesting, so surreal. A lot of times their albums are more like art than a plain old recording. Take Dark Side of the Moon for example. It's such an experience if you sit there in the dark, pop your headphones in, and just listen. Many of their other albums are like this too. I can never put a finger on exactly what's so special about their music. It just is.

#7 - Liz Phair

Liz Phair got her start in the 90's and is still going strong today. Her voice may not be the most amazing in the world, but it's her lyrics that are stunning. They're very truthful and raw, especially on her first album, Exile in Guyville. She doesn't try to disguise anything; she just comes out and tells everything like it is. Even though she doesn't use your traditional poetic language, her songs are definitely poetic. She may have gone more mainstream in recent years (although I've heard Funstyle is very good and not as mainstream, so I'm going to have to check it out), but she's still an extraordinary artist.

#6 - Elton John

Elton John is a music legend. If you don't know who he is and at least one of his songs, then you're probably living under a rock. I've never heard a song of his that I didn't like, and his music tackles a variety of subjects. There's Your Song, one of my favorite love songs of all time, and then you've got more upbeat tracks that just make you want to move around like The Bitch is Back. Not to mention his piano skills. Just watching him play is mesmerizing! He's definitely one of the most talented musicians alive today.

#5 - Billy Joel

Of course the piano man had to make the list! Billy Joel's songs remind me of show tunes (so it's no surprise that they made a jukebox musical out of them). Many of them tell stories, such as Scenes from and Italian Restaurant and his most famous song where he got his nickname from, Piano Man. Every time I hear one of them, the writer in me starts to think up stories I could write inspired by the lyrics. Like Elton John, Billy Joel has amazing technique that's fascinating to watch. If you've ever seen him play Angry Young Man with his hands jumping up and down at a furious pace, you know what I'm talking about. 

#4 - Jethro Tull

There is no other band quite like Jethro Tull. Headed by flutist Ian Anderson, this band is amazing. Just imagine a rock band with flute, and that's what you've got. Being a flutist myself, I find Anderson's fluting awesome to watch. He dances around on the stage while rocking out with flute solos no one else could ever match. The band's songs are interesting and beautifully crafted. While they may not be the most famous band in the world, Jethro Tull is worth checking out. You'll never be able to hear a rock-type flute solo again without thinking of them.

#3 - Queen

With many famous songs and one of the most extraordinary singers of all time, Freddy Mercury, Queen is one of the best bands of all time. They have so many iconic songs, from We Will Rock You/We Are the Champions that has now become a sports anthem, to everyone's favorite, Bohemian Rhapsody. Even their work that isn't quite as famous as some of their other stuff is great. Freddy Mercury had an amazing voice that no one will ever forget - just listening to some of his performances sends chills surging down my spine! Queen is one of those bands that will have a legacy that will live on forever.

#2 - The Beatles

I wanted to put The Beatles at #1, but I felt like that would be a little too obvious. But even at spot two on this list, they're the most inspirational band of all time. Even though they broke up years ago, they still sell a crazy amount of recordings each year. Some of their songs are poetic, while others like I am the Walrus make no sense, but are still fun to listen to. Their songs are everywhere, from TV commercials to movies to churches, and no matter how many times you hear them, you can never get sick of them. The Beatles have made such an impact on music. I've never met a music fan who didn't like them.

#1 (The London) Suede

Suede (or The London Suede as they're known as in the US) is my absolute favorite band of all time. They're not very well known since they didn't last long, but the songs that they did record in those years are amazing. Headed by their lead singer Brett Anderson, who has one of the strangest yet most complex voices I've ever heard, the bands songs are usually about drugs and sex, but these topics that people usually frown upon in mainstream music are addressed in such a different, almost poetic way. You have to really listen to their songs to get the true meanings behind them. If you're looking for an introduction to this band, check out the song Animal Nitrate. It was how I found out about Suede, and you won't be able to stop listening to it for days, if not weeks!

Saturday, December 4, 2010

A Little Night Music Cast Album

I've had the original cast album for A Little Night Music kicking around on my Ipod for awhile, but never really got to listen to it. That was until last week. I sat down, threw my earbuds in, and decided to take a listen to the music from this classic Sondheim musical.

After the overture, the album starts out with Now- Later - Soon. When I first realized that this song was over 10 minutes long, I got a bit concerned. Songs with this length are either amazing or they're extremely repetitive and boring.  This song turned out to be the former. It gives you a good sense of what's going on with the characters and provides a nice introduction that makes you want to listen to the rest of the music.

The album continues on with The Glamorous Life, one of my favorite songs from this musical, and goes onto even more memorable Sondheim tunes, including The Miller's Son, an interesting look at one of the main characters, the famous Send in the Clowns, and another one of my favorites, You Must Meet My Wife. Now, there are some boring tracks on this album, but the good songs outnumber the less interesting ones.

So what would I give this cast album? I'd say an 8 out of 10.  Even if there are a few boring songs scattered throughout, this is one of those recordings that I'll definitely go back and listen to over and over again. If you're a musical theatre fan or a Sondheim fan, go and take a listen!

Sunday, November 21, 2010

Les Miserables 25th Anniversary Concert

Wednesday night, I took a trip to the local movie theatre to see the Les Miserables 25th Anniversary Concert. Les Miz has always had a special place in my heart. It was one of the first musicals I ever discovered, and while I think the story could be fledged out a bit more and the characters are flat for the most part, I've always loved the music, so I know I couldn't pass up the opportunity to see this. And I'm so glad that I decided to go - it was amazing.

Almost all the performers were wonderful. Lea Salogna played Fantine perfectly. Her facial expressions and on-cue crying added to all those emotional moments that the character has to go through. Ramin Karmiloo shined as Enjolras, and Matt Lucas made a hilarious Thenardier. I also loved Jamie Davies as Gavroche. He made the character so cunning, cute, and interesting all at the same time. He's definitely one of my favorite, if not my absolute favorite Gavroche I've ever seen or heard.

The new orchestrations enhanced the score, making it more lush and beautiful than ever. Hearing it in surround sound made the experience even better. There were also some 'bonus songs' at the end of the concert, including a quartet of Valjeans from the different productions over the years singing "Bring Him Home". It was so amazing, so breathtaking, that words can't describe it.

There was one problem I had with the concert, though, and that was Nick Jonas as Marius. He seemed very weak next to all the other performers. It was as though they had a bunch of professionally trained, experienced actors, and then he was just thrown into the mix. His singing was alright, but his acting was laughable. I actually had to stop myself from laughing at how bad he was at some points, especially at the part where he first meets Cosette. Not to mention, he also brought in loads of fangirls who wouldn't stop giggling and freaking out over him during the whole thing. But I will admit, Cameron Macintosh was smart with this decision. Sure, Nick wasn't very good, but he did bring a new audience to Les Miserables who may not have been interested in the musical beforehand.

If you didn't get a chance to see the concert in person or in theatres, rent or buy a copy of it as soon as it comes out on DVD. You'll be in for a three-hour-long musical treat.


Tuesday, November 16, 2010

The Perfect Comedy

Who doesn't love comedy? Everyone loves to laugh, and watching characters in a play or musical say and do funny things just seems to take all of our troubles away. When you leave the theatre after seeing a comedic show, you feel so happy, and on the way back home, you're quoting all the memorable lines with the friends you brought along. More dramatic plays and musical can be awesome too, but there's nothing quite like a comedy.

What sets apart an average comedy from an amazing one, though? There's three things. The first two, great jokes and funny situations, are obvious, but the last one, great characters, may not be. 

For a comedy to be truly amazing, you can't just have a bunch of gags. This is the problem with many of them. You walk away thinking that the show was amusing, but do you remember anything other than those few comedic lines? Probably not. Do you find any of the characters memorable? Not if they were just cardboard cut-outs there for the sole purpose of making jokes, and that means in a week or two, the show will fade away into the back of your memory. 

The comedies that really stand out are the ones with great characters. Take for example, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels. This show is great - it has great music, is hilarious, and has very human, very interesting characters. Freddy is a bumbling, want-to-be con-artist who is looking to get rich quick. He's creative, but he's also gullible and a bit stupid. His rival, Lawrence, is the exact opposite. He's charming, smooth, and cunning, but he also has an emotional side that comes out later on in the play. Along with the side-splitting moments in the show, like the Ruprecht scene and the Oklahoma? song, there's parts, especially toward the end (don't worry, I won't give anything way), that are very emotional. We get to know the characters like their our friends, and even though I saw the show a few months ago, Freddy Benson, Lawrence Jamison, and their adventures have still stayed in my mind.

The Producers, one of the most successful comedies in musical theatre, also has the advantage of great characters. A lot of the characters are stereotypes, but Max and Leo, the two main characters, are very real. From what I've seen, most people who like this show like it because they can relate to one or both of them. Max is always looking to get rich. He's a bit depressed by his failures, and can be a bit lazy, but he always finds some avenue that will get him his way. The audience also sees during the 'Til Him scene that he can have a bit of a sentimental side. Leo, on the other hand, is shy and timid. He's neurotic and always fearful, but he dreams of life as a big, successful Broadway producer, even though he's afraid to pursue this career at first. I'm sure everyone who wants to work in theatre has had some sort of daydream similar to the one he has during I Wanna Be A Producer. These two characters help this musical stay in our minds long after the final curtain has fallen, since it's easy for audience members to find ways to relate to them.

Sure, a comedy needs to be funny. That's a given. But for a comedy to be truly amazing and memorable, it can't just make us laugh. It has to have some great characters for us to remember as well, or else it will become "just another show" instead of being one of those shows that you never forget.

- Marina

Thursday, November 11, 2010

The Return of Rent?

Last Friday, I found this article claiming that one of the most famous musicals of our time, RENT, could be having a revival off-Broadway.

And the moment I saw the article, even if it is just from a theatre gossip column, all I could think was, it's too soon.

It wasn't too long ago that this show closed on Broadway. It's only been a few years at the most, and for the die-hard fans who still want to be able to see a live performance of it, it's certainly not impossible. Ever since the rights came out for the show to be performed in community theatres, it seems like every single one out there is taking it on. The majority of community theatres in my area have either done it or are planning on doing it, including the one I volunteer at.

Another thing - I don't think RENT is as great a show as it's cracked up to be. Even when I was doing tech on the show, and I was having an awesome time because of the great cast, techies, and the amazing reactions from the audiences, I thought this. Parts of the plot just don't make sense (I'm supposed to believe Roger and Mimi fell in love, broke up, and the fell in love again in just a week?) and the message that artists can do whatever they want is pathetic, especially when a lot of fans I've seen actually take that message to heart. I found myself on Benny's side while watching the show from backstage - he just wants his long overdue rent! Is that too much to ask? I will admit that I like a lot of the songs, but that's about it.

I know that RENT has a huge following of fans, and tickets for a revival of it, even if it's off-Broadway, would probably sell well, but it's too early for this show to come back, and not to mention, it's not very good and makes people in the creative arts look like lazy bums. Call me what you will, but we don't need another over-hyped show like this one.

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Adaptation Overload: Is it Good or Bad?

          If you were to take a survey asking fans of musical theatre if they think that theatre nowadays is lacking originality, nine out of ten would probably say yes. It seems like we’re always complaining about the number of jukebox musicals and adaptations we see every year. Nearly every hit on Broadway now is an adaptation. The only exception that comes to mind is Next to Normal. But is the lack of originality in theatre really as bad as we all make it out to be?

Personally, I think it’s a blessing and a curse.

First, the blessing part. There have been some great musicals that have been adaptations. In fact, my favorite musical of all time, The Producers, was adapted from a movie. There are some stories that just seem great for the stage, and have proved that they’re even better when they have song and dance blended into them.

But at the same time, this trend is also a curse. For every great adaptation, for every story that was made better by becoming a musical comedy, you have the shows that are just terrible and were only created because the people behind them knew they would turn a huge profit. That’s why we have shows like Mama Mia and Legally Blonde. They’re mediocre at best, but because they carry familiar names of movies and 80’s pop groups, they sell. People go toward what they’re familiar with, so adaptations of blockbuster movies and jukebox musicals consisting of the music of famous bands and musicians usually become hits. This wouldn’t be such a bad thing if it didn’t mean that original, creative musicals don’t get as much attention as they deserve.

Sadly, it looks like this is a pattern that is going to continue. As I said, these adaptations sell well, so producers are going to produce them. It’s only natural that we see more of them than we see musicals such as [Title of Show].

So what can theatre fans do instead of sitting around and complaining about the lack of originality on Broadway? We could go see more original shows that don’t seem to be getting much attention, see some of the new shows looking for their big break Off-Broadway, and attend more regional theatre shows. If you look around, you’ll be surprised by the amount of wacky and creative shows are out there.

The trend of jukebox and adaptation musicals probably isn’t going to end anytime soon. After all, these types of shows are making producers millions of dollars because of their successes. But don’t be afraid to give some of them a chance because some end up being great, and remember, originality in theatre isn’t completely dead – sometimes it’s just harder to find those gems out there.


Wednesday, October 27, 2010

To Glee or Not to Glee

If you want to read another blog post praising Glee and containing phrases such as "OMG I LUV LEA MICHELLE!1!11!" . . . then you've come to the wrong place, because I'm not a huge fan of Glee.

Yes, I said it. I. Don't. Like. Glee.

Some people gasp at this statement, especially when they know I'm a theatre fanatic. Doesn't every theatre person love this show? Well, apparently not.

Alright, so I don't absolutely abhor this show. I've seen a few episodes, and there are some things about it that I do like. Some of their renditions of popular songs aren't too bad, I loved the episode with Neil Patrick Harris, and Jane Lynch is hysterical, but overall, I find Glee overrated, and frankly, a bit annoying.

First of all, there's Lea Michelle. Her singing is alright, but her acting is obnoxious. I understand her character is supposed to be annoying and a bit over-the-top, but just watching the scenes with her makes me frantically search for the remote to change the channel.

The over-dramatization of high school just makes me want to roll my eyes. Sure, they need some drama to keep the show interesting, but in the episodes that I've seen, there's so much that it makes it seem unrealistic. After all, I go to high school, and it's rare that I see THAT much drama, unless people are purposely trying to create it.

The cast also tends to butcher most of the songs they sing. There have been a few renditions that I've enjoyed, such as Aerosmith's "Dream On", but the majority I can't stand. Lea Michelle's "Don't Rain on my Parade" is pretty painful, and so is their version of "Hello, Goodbye" by the Beatles. And  don't get me started on "Sweet Transvestite"! The song is about a male transvestite, and you have a girl singing it? Do I need to define the word transvestite for you?

And don't get me started on the masses of "fake theatre buffs" the show has produced - teenage girls who claim that theatre is their life, but can't name you a single show tune or musical except for the ones that they've done on Glee. They say they love theatre with all their heart, but don't even know who Rogers and Hammerstein are.

But there are some good things about the show. Maybe there are more fake theatre buffs, but this show is exposing people to more musicals than before. Even if some of them won't bother to listen to anything other than Wicked and Legally Blonde, I've met some people who have really had their interest in musical theatre sparked because of Glee. Some have asked me about different musicals and for suggestions on which musicals to check out. I've even gone to some of my friends parties and they played show tunes! Alright, maybe they were the crappy Glee renditions, but still.

So maybe Glee is one of the most overrated shows on TV and doesn't live up to all the hype it gets, but it does do some good things. After all, if it's introducing people to the wonderful world of theatre and making people curious about this great art form, then it can't be all that bad.

- Marina

Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Theatre - Just as Addicting as Sweets

Anyone who knows me knows that I love sweets. Especially ice cream. It takes a ridiculous amount of willpower to keep myself from splurging on it everyday. It's addicting, and if I don't get ice cream at some point during the week, I go crazy. I need that sweet, sugary sensation to keep a hold of my sanity.

For theatre people, being part of shows, whether it's acting, directing, or being on tech, is the same way. It's addicting, and when you don't get to be involved with shows for a long time, you practically go through withdrawal because you miss the excitement, and even the stress, that you live for.

Why do I bring this up? It's happening to me right now.

I haven't been involved with a show since August, and unless something changes, I won't get the chance to be involved in another one until after Christmas. I haven't been able to do the shows at the community theatre I volunteer at due to the fact that I wouldn't be able to get there every night because of other stuff that's been going on in my family. I was supposed to be assistant directing my school's play, but that got postponed until further notice because of some bad news. So what am I doing in the meantime?

Going absolutely crazy.

I've been to see a few plays, including the one that's currently playing at the community theatre, and I'm ushering for one of the shows this weekend. I've been reading some plays, watching some musicals on DVD, and going to tech night at the theatre, but as anyone who's ever been involved with theatre will know, it's not enough.

When I'm not involved with a show for more than a month, there feels like a part of me is missing. I don't have to go to rehearsal? I don't have to go to a show? I just have to sit around? It doesn't seem right! Theatre is what I live for, and I hate having too much free time on my hands!

So for the next few months, I'll probably be in this awful mental state and eagerly anticipating whatever show comes my way next (I'm still not sure which one it is, since I'm not too sure about dates for everything yet). Because theatre is like sugar - no matter what you do, you're always going to crave that feeling of being part of an amazing live performance.

Sunday, October 17, 2010

Don't Knock it 'Til Ya Try It: La Cage aux Folles - the new Broadway cast recording

Ah, La Cage aux Folles.  I'll admit, I've never seen this musical. I haven't even seen the original French film that it's based off of (although I plan to), but I have seen The Birdcage, which I love. But ever since I bought the original cast album off of Itunes last year, I've fallen in love with the music and I've been dying to see the show.

I'll admit, when I first heard that a new cast album was coming out, I was skeptical. What could possibly top the original? George Hearn sang all those songs so well, along with the rest of the cast. It couldn't possibly be as good as the original. Curiosity got the best of me, though, so I bought this new recording the morning it came out, and guess what? All my doubts about it were proven wrong. I haven't stopped listening to it since, and as much as I hate to say it, I actually prefer it to the original.

Alright, alright, I admit, Douglas Hodge isn't as good a singer as George Hearn. I still listen to Hearn's versions of A Little More Mascara, The Best of Times, and of course, my favorite show tune of all time, I Am What I Am instead of Hodge's. The orchestra isn't as good either, because as we all know, the size of Broadway orchestras has shrunk over the years. But aside from those few issues, I like listening to the new version better.

First of all, the new recording is clearer, as you might expect. I couldn't always understand exactly what the singers were saying on the original, but on this one, I can understand nearly every word. It's also nice to have a lot more dialogue, which helps you really understand what's going on in the story if you listen to the album the whole way through. Not only are there tracks devoted to some of the important in-between conversations that explain important plot points, but even the songs themselves have more dialogue. This is most notable in Cocktail Counterpoint, the title song, and Masculinity. Some of the songs have been extended, too, such as With Anne On My Arm, in which there's a part with Jean-Michel singing and Georges reflecting on his son's announcement that he's getting married. ("But after all he's a great kid/So full of charm for a straight kid!")

So, sure, there's aspects about the original recording no one can ever beat, and Hearn's I Am What I Am will never be surpassed, but don't knock this cast album until you take a listen. It's well worth the money, and an awesome cast album overall!


Saturday, October 16, 2010


Hey everybody who's reading this blog! I thought I might as well make an introductory post before I actually start blogging.

I'm a high school junior who absolutely loves theatre, which is why I've decided to start blogging about it. I've been involved with theatre since I was 13, but didn't start seriously pursuing it until last year. I'm not much of an actor, but I do a lot of tech work at a local theatre and granted that situations get better over the course of the year, I'll be starting to assistant direct school shows. In the long run I hope to pursue a career as a director or a producer for shows.

So, what should you expect from this blog? All sorts of stuff! I plan to review shows that I see, cast albums that I buy, discuss some of my favorite and least favorite shows, and give some of my thoughts on different things going on in the world of theatre. I hope to update once a week, if not more.

Until the next post,